Effects of industrial wind turbine noise on sleep and health. Nissenbaum Michael A, Aramini Jeffery J, Hanning Christopher D Year : 2012 | Volume: 14 | Issue Number: 60 | Page: 237-243
Impact of wind turbine sound on annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 425, 15 May 2012, Pages 42-51, ISSN 0048-9697, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.005. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969712003373) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.005. R.H.Bakker, E. Pedersen, G.P. van den Berg, R.E. Stewart, W. Lok, J. Bouma
“The signiﬁcant increase in sleep disturbance at sound pressure levels of 45 dB(A) and higher is close to the recommendation of the WHO that an average outdoor noise level at night should be no more than 40 dB(A).”
Abstract: Purpose of the research: The present government in the Netherlands intends to realize a substantial growth of wind energy before 2020, both onshore and offshore. Wind turbines, when positioned in the neighborhood of residents may cause visual annoyance and noise annoyance. Studies on other environmental sound sources, such as railway, road traffic, industry and aircraft noise show that (long-term) exposure to sound can have negative effects other than annoyance from noise. This study aims to elucidate the relation between exposure to the sound of wind turbines and annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress of people that live in their vicinity. Data were gathered by questionnaire that was sent by mail to a representative sample of residents of the Netherlands living in the vicinity of wind turbines Principal results: A dose–response relationship was found between immission levels of wind turbine sound and self-reported noise annoyance. Sound exposure was also related to sleep disturbance and psychological distress among those who reported that they could hear the sound, however not directly but with noise annoyance acting as a mediator. Respondents living in areas with other background sounds were less affected than respondents in quiet areas.
“Health aspects associated with wind turbine noise—Results from three field studies”, Eja Pedersen, Noise Control Engineering J. 59 (1), Jan-Feb 2011.
“A Cooperative Measurement Survey and Analysis of Low Frequency and Infrasound at the Shirley Wind Farm in Brown County, Wisconsin” (Dec. 2012)
Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines, by Møller H, Pedersen CS., J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Jun;129(6):3727-44
Wind turbines, flicker, and photosensitive epilepsy: Characterizing the flashing that may precipitate seizures and optimizing guidelines to prevent them, by Harding, G., Harding, P., and Wilkins, A. Epilepsia, 49(6):1095–1098, 2008.